Plot overview and analysis written by an experienced literary critic. Full study guide for this title currently under development. To be notified when we launch a full study guide, please contact us.
The first prominent existentialist philosopher to adopt the term as a self-description was Jean-Paul Sartre. Existentialism as a term, therefore, has been applied to many philosophers in hindsight. According to historian Steven Crowelldefining existentialism has therefore been relatively difficult, and argues that it is better understood as a general approach used to reject certain systematic philosophies rather than as a systematic philosophy.
Existence precedes essence A central proposition of existentialism is that existence precedes essencewhich means that the actual life of the individual is what constitutes what could be called his or her "essence" instead of there being a predetermined essence that defines what it is to be a human.
Thus, human beings — through their own consciousness — create their own values and determine a meaning to their life.
It is often claimed in this context that a person defines himself or herself, which is often perceived as stating that they can wish to be something — anything, a bird, for instance — and then be it.
According to most existentialist philosophers, however, this would constitute an inauthentic existence. Instead, the phrase should be taken to say that the person is 1 defined only insofar as he or she acts and 2 that he or she is responsible for his or her actions.
For example, someone who acts cruelly towards other people is, by that act, defined as a cruel person. Furthermore, by this action of cruelty, such persons are themselves responsible for their new identity a cruel person.
This is as opposed to their genes, or 'human nature', bearing the blame. As Sartre writes it in his work Existentialism is a Humanism: A person can choose to act in a different way, and to be a good person instead of a cruel person.
Here it is also clear that since humans can choose to be either cruel or good, they are, in fact, neither of these things essentially. Absurdism The notion of the Absurd contains the idea that there is no meaning to be found in the world beyond what meaning we give to it.
This meaninglessness also encompasses the amorality or "unfairness" of the world.
This contrasts with "karmic" ways of thinking in which "bad things don't happen to good people"; to the world, metaphorically speaking, there is no such thing as a good person or a bad thing; what happens happens, and it may just as well happen to a "good" person as to a "bad" person.
Because of the world's absurdity, at any point in time, anything can happen to anyone, and a tragic event could plummet someone into direct confrontation with the Absurd. The notion of the absurd has been prominent in literature throughout history.
It is in relation to the concept of the devastating awareness of meaninglessness that Albert Camus claimed that "there is only one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide" in his The Myth of Sisyphus.
Although "prescriptions" against the possibly deleterious consequences of these kinds of encounters vary, from Kierkegaard's religious "stage" to Camus' insistence on persevering in spite of absurdity, the concern with helping people avoid living their lives in ways that put them in the perpetual danger of having everything meaningful break down is common to most existentialist philosophers.
The possibility of having everything meaningful break down poses a threat of quietismwhich is inherently against the existentialist philosophy.
Facticity Facticity is a concept defined by Sartre in Being and Nothingness as that " in-itself " of which humans are in the mode of not being. This can be more easily understood when considering it in relation to the temporal dimension of past: One's past is what one is in the sense that it co-constitutes oneself.
However, to say that one is only one's past would be to ignore a large part of reality the present and the futurewhile saying that one's past is only what one was would entirely detach it from them now.
A denial of one's own concrete past constitutes an inauthentic lifestyle, and the same goes for all other kinds of facticity having a body e. Facticity is both a limitation and a condition of freedom.
It is a limitation in that a large part of one's facticity consists of things one couldn't have chosen birthplace, etc.
A Clockwork Orange is set in a future London and is told in nadsat, a slang made from a mixture of Russian, American and British English. John Anthony Burgess Wilson was born in Manchester, England into a Catholic middle-class family. A Clockwork Orange was initially published in In the United States, the book was published with only twenty chapters. Elsewhere in . In the analysis of film style, (see George C. Scott in Dr. Strangelove  and Malcolm McDowell in A Clockwork Orange ). Both techniques have the effect of slightly alienating the audience and this alienation is consistent with Kubrick’s tendency to eschew melodrama or sentiment. The Killing has often been interpreted as a.
However, even though one's facticity is "set in stone" as being past, for instanceit cannot determine a person: The value ascribed to one's facticity is still ascribed to it freely by that person.
As an example, consider two men, one of whom has no memory of his past and the other remembers everything. They have both committed many crimes, but the first man, knowing nothing about this, leads a rather normal life while the second man, feeling trapped by his own past, continues a life of crime, blaming his own past for "trapping" him in this life.
There is nothing essential about his committing crimes, but he ascribes this meaning to his past. However, to disregard one's facticity when one, in the continual process of self-making, projects oneself into the future, would be to put oneself in denial of oneself, and would thus be inauthentic.Essay Existentialism values existentialist arise which of out situations in protagonists feature both Analysis; Existentialist Essay: Orange Clockwork A.
Outsider the in Existentialism Topics: existentialist an as denoted often is by embodied highly absurd the of principles the exploring essay an. Jan 05, · Existentialism is a philosophy about life that says being is more important than the indispensable everyday occurrences.
It acknowledges an individuals freedom to choose and says with this knowing there comes an immense sense of responsibility. A Clockwork Orange Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange literature essays are academic essays for citation.
These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of A Clockwork Orange.
Introduction to the New Existentialism). in later years they were to disagree irreparably/01/ Existentialism Wikipedia.
he attempted to reinvigorate what he perceived as a pessimistic philosophy and bring it to a wider attheheels.com poem evoking homosexual desire and existentialist attheheels.comdia. Akin, I felt, to that famous scene — I refer you, dear reader, to the lovely image left/above in this paragraph — with Alex in A Clockwork Orange (), in which the charming sadist Alex is being forcefully ‘reconditioned’ to become conformist and obedient.
A Clockwork Orange, written by Anthony Burgess and converted to fllm by Stanley Kubrick, is one of the more popular images of behavioral interventions held by the lay public (Morris, ; Todd, Atwater, Johnson, Larsen, & Morris, ).