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Abstract Arthrogryposes — multiple joint contractures — are a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous class of diseases, where accurate diagnosis, recognition of the underlying pathology and classification are of key importance for the prognosis as well as for selection of appropriate management.
This treatment remains challenging and optimally in arthrogrypotic patients should be carried out by a team of specialists familiar with all aspects of arthrogryposis pathology and treatment modalities: In this comprehensive review article, based on literature and clinical experience, the authors present an update on current knowledge on etiology, classifications and treatment options for skeletal deformations possible in arthrogryposis.
Their common feature is the presence of congenital, usually non-progressive joint contractures involving at least two different body areas.
This class of diseases includes the so-called classic arthrogryposis — amyoplasia, with its unique clinical features such as symmetrical, severe contractures, usually involving both the upper and lower limbs [ 1 ].
Most contractures in arthrogryposis require treatment; this potentially involves multiple surgical corrections of the knees and hips, correction of spinal deformities, elbow and wrist contractures, foot deformities, and of dislocations commonly accompanying the contractures; of these, the hip and knee are the most commonly affected joints [ 2 — 4 ].
The treatment of a child, and subsequently an A look at arthrogryposis essay, with arthrogryposis is a challenge — not only due to the nature of the disease and the resulting surgical technical difficulties, but also due to the required logistics of the complex multi-disciplinary treatment; this involves, among others, pediatricians, physiotherapists, geneticists, orthopedic surgeons, and orthotic specialists — all of whom need thorough knowledge and experience in the treatment of arthrogryposis patients [ 5 — 9 ].
As the population of patients with arthrogryposis — due to their expected survival matching that of the general population — grows to be a relatively numerous group, a number of treating specialists will see AMC patients — whether newborn, pediatric or adult — who will require at least counseling and potentially treatment.
The objective of this review is to summarize contemporary concepts covering the topic of arthrogryposis, especially its etiology, diagnosis and treatment, for all professionals who are likely to see arthrogryposis patients, notably orthopedic surgeons, rehabilitation physicians, pediatricians, physiotherapists and nursing specialists.
The term arthrogryposis is used to denote contractures involving at least two joints in two different body regions [ 2021 ]. According to Bamshad et al.
Hall describes among multiple congenital joint contractures three subgroups of disorders, i. In the differential diagnostics and classification of congenital contractures, the central nervous system function is the factor of paramount importance: Normal neurological examination usually indicates that contractures have originated in the fetal life in the form of classic AMC, DA, or other diseases [ 2021 ].
Etiology The pathological mechanism of congenital joint contractures usually involves the absence of active fetal movements akinesianormally appearing in the eighth week of fetal life — fetal akinesia lasting over 3 weeks may be sufficient to result in absence of normal stretching of muscles and tendons acting on the affected joints, and cause reduced compliance of the joint capsule and periarticular ligaments, consequently leading to fibrosis and contractures of the affected joints determined by the passive position of the limb Figure 1 [ 22 ].
The earlier the restriction of active fetal motion occurs, the greater the arthrogryposis severity; it is also considered that fibrosis of periarticular structures — both the ligaments and the articular capsule — may be responsible for the tendency of the affected joints to return to their original fetal position despite the used treatment, i.
This is confirmed by experimental studies including chicken fetuses; their results indicate that the absence of active motion in embryonic joints caused by e. The effects of curare on rat embryos include multiple joint contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, short umbilical cord, hypoplasia of the jaw, and polyhydramnios.
These abnormalities have been termed the fetal akinesia syndrome, and a similar syndrome in humans is known as the Pena-Shokeir syndrome [ 2327 ]. The direct etiological factor causing akinesia in humans remains unknown, but a number of abnormalities can be discerned that can result in disruption of active movement and consequently fetal akinesia.
Alternatively, the abnormalities may concern the fetal environment:This Pin was discovered by Stephanie Dufour. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinterest.
Craniosynostosis (from cranio, cranium; + syn, together; + ostosis relating to bone), sometimes called craniostenosis, is a condition in which one or more of the fibrous sutures in an infant (very young) skull prematurely fuses by turning into bone (ossification), thereby changing the growth pattern of the skull.
Because the skull cannot expand perpendicular to the fused suture, it compensates. Now, have a look at research paper introduction example: “The musical marketing turns to be digital according to demands of current online epoche. Such underground, but worldwide famous bands like Radiohead and IAMX gain profit from the internet and use it as a primary source to show the audience their creation.
Bear, my 6 year old boy with Arthrogryposis Multiplex Congenita (AMC) Amyplasia.
He is using a dressing tree to take his shirt off and on all by himself! This post is all about dorm room inspiration so feel free to take a look to inspire your room!" "Adding a Touch of Cozy To Your Home // attheheels.com" See more. You can’t just look at it with a black or white mindset, you gotta look at the nuance.
Someone like David Icke talks bs about lizard aliens without providing any smoking gun or circumstantial evidence, thats closer to a leftist who blames western culture for histories problems. INTRODUCTION Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is a non- progressive congenital neuromuscular syndrome that can be diagnosed at birth by the common phenotypic char- acteristics of joint contractures in 2 or more body areas, muscle weakness, .