This opinion is subject to formal revision before publication in the preliminary print of the United States Reports. We consider whether a District of Columbia prohibition on the possession of usable handguns in the home violates the Second Amendment to the Constitution. I The District of Columbia generally prohibits the possession of handguns.
Head Quarters Newburgh [N. But before I carry this resolution into effect, I think it a duty encumbent on me to make this my last Official communication; to congratulate you on the glorious events which Heaven has been pleased to produce in our favor, to offer my sentiments respecting some important subjects which appear to me to be intimately connected with the tranquility of the United States, to take my leave of your Excellency as a public Character, and to give my final blessing to that Country in whose service I have spent the prime of my life, for whose sake I have consumed so many anxious days and watchful nights, and whose happiness being extremely dear to me, will always constitute no inconsiderable part of my own.
Impressed with the liveliest sensibility on this pleasing occasion, I will claim the indulgence of dilating the more copiously on the subjects of our mutual felicitation.
When we consider the magnitude of the prize we contended for, the doubtfull nature of the contest, and the favorable manner in which it has terminated, we shall find the greatest possible reason for gratitude and rejoicing; this is a theme that will afford infinite delight to every benevolent and liberal mind, whether the event in contemplation be considered as the source of present enjoyment, or the parent of future happiness; and we shall have equal reason to felicitate ourselves on the lot which Providence has assigned us, whether we view it in a Natural, a political or a moral point of light.
The Citizens of America, placed in the most enviable condition, as the sole Lords and Proprietors of a vast tract of Continent, comprehending all the various soils and climates of the World, and abounding with all the necessaries and conveniences of life, are now, by the late satisfactory pacification, acknowledged to be possessed of absolute Freedom and Independency; They are from this period to be considered as the Actors on a most conspicuous Theatre, which seems to be peculiarly designated by Providence, for the display of human greatness and felicity; Here they are not only surrounded with every thing which can contribute to the completion of private and domestic enjoyment, but Heaven has crowned all its other blessings, by giving a fairer opportunity for political happiness than any other Nation has ever been favored with.
Nothing can illustrate these observations more forcibly, than a recollection of the happy conjuncture of times and circumstances under which our Republic assumed its rank among the Nations. With this conviction of the importance of the present Crisis, silence in me would be a crime, I will therefore speak to your Excellency the language of freedom and of sincerity without disguise; I am aware however, that those who differ from me in political sentiment may perhaps remark, I am stepping out of the proper line of my duty, and they may possibly ascribe to arrogance or ostentation, what I know is alone the result of the purest intention; but the rectitude of my own heart, which disdains such unworthy motives, the part I have hitherto acted in life, the determination I have formed of not taking any share in public business hereafter, the ardent desire I feel and shall continue to manifest, of quietly enjoying in private life, after all the toils of War, the benefits of a wise and liberal Government, will, I flatter myself sooner or later, convince my Countrymen, that I could have no sinister views in delivering, with so little reserve, the opinions contained in this Address.
These are the Pillars on which the glorious Fabrick of our Independency and National Character must be supported—Liberty is the Basis, and whoever should dare to sap the foundation or overturn the Structure, under whatever specious pretexts he may attempt it, will merit the bitterest execration, and the severest punishment which can be inflicted by his injured Country.
On the three first Articles I will make a few observations, leaving the last to the good sense and serious consideration of those immediately concerned.
Many other considerations might here be adduced to prove, that without an entire conformity to the spirit of the Union, we cannot exist as an Independent Power; It will be sufficient for my purpose to mention but one or two which seem to me of the greatest importance: It is only in our United Character as an Empire, that our Independence is acknowledged, that our Power can be regarded, or our Credit supported among Foreign Nations.
The Treaties of the Europ an Powers with the United States of America, will have no validity on a dissolution of the Union—We shall be left nearly in a State of Nature, or we may find by our own unhappy experience that there is a natural and necessary progression from the extreme of anarchy to the extreme of Tyranny, and that arbitrary power is most easily established on the ruins of Liberty abused to licentiousness.
The ability of the Country to discharge the debts which have been incurred in its defence, is not to be doubted—an inclination, I flatter myself, will not be wanting.
In this state of absolute Freedom and perfect security, who will grudge to yield a very little of his property to support the common interest of Society, and ensure the protection of Government?
Who does not remember the frequent declarations at the commencement of the War, that we should be compleatly satisfied, if at the expence of one half we could defend the remainder of our possessions? Where is the Man to be found who wishes to remain indebted for the defence of his own person and property, to the exertions, the bravery, and the blood of others, without making one generous effort to repay the debt of honor and of gratitude?
In what part of the Continent shall we find any Man, or body of Men, who would not blush to stand up and propose measures purposely calculated to rob the Soldier of his stipend, and the Public Creditor of his due? As to the Idea, which I am informed has in some instances prevailed, that the half pay and commutation are to be regarded merely in the odious light of a pension, it ought to be exploded forever, that Provision should be viewed, as it really was, a reasonable compensation offered by Congress, at a time when they had nothing else to give, to the Officers of the Army for Services then to be performed, It was the only means to prevent a total dereliction of the Service, It was a part of their hire, I may be allowed to say, it was the price of their blood and of your Independency, it is therefore more than a common debt, it is a debt of honor, it can never be considered as a pension or gratuity, nor be cancelled untill it is fairly discharged.
With regard to a distinction between Officers and Soldiers, it is sufficient that the uniform experience of every Nation of the World, combined with our own, proves the utility and propriety of the discrimination. Before I conclude the subject of Public Justice, I cannot omit to mention the obligations this Country is under, to that meritorious Class of veteran Non-Commissioned Officers and Privates who have been discharged for inability, in consequence of the Resolution of Congress of the 23d Aprilon an annual pension for life, their peculiar sufferings, their singular Merits and claims to that provision, need only be known, to interest all the feelings of humanity in their behalf; nothing but a punctual payment of their annual allowance, can rescue them from the most complicated misery, and nothing could be a more melancholly and distressing sight, than to behold those who have shed their blood or lost their limbs in the service of their Country, without a shelter, without a Friend, and without the means of obtaining any of the necessaries or comforts of life, compelled to beg their daily bread from door to door!
It is necessary to say but a few words on the third topic which was proposed, and which regards particularly the defence of the Republic; As there can be little doubt but Congress will recommend a proper Peace Establishment for the United States, in which a due attention will be paid to the importance of placing the Militia of the Union upon a regular and respectable footing, if this should be the case, I would beg leave to urge the great advantage of it in the strongest terms.
The Militia of this Country must be considered as the Palladium of our security, and the first effectual resort in case of hostility; it is essential therefore, that the same System should pervade the whole, that the formation and discipline of the Militia of the Continent should be absolutely uniform, and the same species of Arms, Accoutrements, and Military Apparatus, should be introduced in every part of the United States; No one, who has not learned it from experience, can conceive the difficulty, expence and confusion which result from a contrary System, or the vague Arrangements which have hitherto prevailed.
I have thus freely disclosed what I wished to make known, before I surrendered up my Public trust to those who committed it to me: I now bid adieu to your Excellency as the Chief Majistrate of your State, at the same time, I bid a last farewell to the cares of office and all the employments of public life.
It remains then to be my final and only request, that your Excellency will communicate these sentiments to your Legislature at their next meeting, and that they may be considered as the Legacy of one, who has ardently wished on all occasions to be usefull to his Country, and who, even in the shade of Retirement, will not fail to implore the divine benediction upon it.
I now make it my earnest prayer, that God would have you and the State over which you preside, in his holy protection, that he would incline the hearts of the Citizens to cultivate a spirit of subordination and obedience to Government—to entertain a brotherly affection and love for one another, for their fellow Citizens of the United States at large, and particularly for their Brethren who have served in the Field, and finally, that he would most graciously be pleased to dispose us all, to do Justice, to love Mercy, and to demean ourselves with that Charity, Humility, and Pacific temper of mind which were the Characteristicks of the Divine Author of our blessed Religion, and without an humble imitation of whose example in these things, we can never hope to be a Happy Nation.
Between 8 and 21 June George Washington sent a copy of this letter to each of the governors of the thirteen states, but, to date, the one sent to Pennsylvania governor John Dickinson has not been found.
The letters listed below are in chronological order under the name of the recipient.🔥Citing and more! Add citations directly into your paper, Check for unintentional plagiarism and check for writing mistakes.
|From George Washington to The States, 8 June||Religion is designed to focus the people's attention and energy on a single, unchanging, uncompromising and invisible supreme being who allegedly created an inferior human race just for some extra companionship and love for himself and then supposedly foisted a set of oppressive and in some cases arbitrary rules on them, which if broken would be met with unimaginable punishment. This keeps the followers in a continuing state of fear and compliance.|
|The Parthenon||Cancel List of Bookmarks During the long Cold War many Russians grew sufficiently disenchanted with the lies and omissions of their own news outlets that they turned to Western radio for a glimpse of the truth.|
|American Pravda: Was General Patton Assassinated?, by Ron Unz - The Unz Review||I will try to do this today with the hope to be able to shed some light on a rather bizarre attack which will nevertheless have profound consequences.|
|You Might Like...||From George Washington to The States, 8 June Circular Head Quarters Newburgh June st Sir The great object, for which I had the honor to hold an Appointment in the service of my Country being accomplished, I am now preparing to resign it into the hands of Congress, and to return to that domestic retirement; which it is well known I left with the greatest reluctance, a retirement for which I have never ceased to sigh through a long and painfull absence, and in which remote from the noise and trouble of the World I meditate to pass the remainder of life, in a state of undisturbed repose: But before I carry this resolution into effect, I think is a duty incumbent on me, to make this my last official communication, to congratulate you on the glorious events which Heaven has been pleased to produce in our favor, to offer my sentiments respecting some important subjects which appear to me to be intimately connected with the tranquility of the United States, to take my leave of your Excellency as a public Character, and to give my final blessing to that Country, in whose service I have spent the prime of my life, for whose sake I have consumed so many anxious days and watchful nights, and whose happiness, being extremely dear to me, will always constitute no inconsiderable part of my own.|
|From George Washington to Officers of the Army, 15 March||In this vision of society, held by many Republicans such as Thomas Jeffersoncities and industry are generally undesirable and often corrupt and immoral. This ideal was directly opposed to the vision of America held by people such as Alexander Hamilton, who believed in trade and modern capitalism.|
If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade. In this paper, I review three major purposes for arms control negotiations — disarmament, stability, and advantage.
In the first part of the paper, I compare the three purposes against the causes of war literature to show that each provides a defensible. As a follow-up to Tuesday’s post about the majority-minority public schools in Oslo, the following brief account reports the latest statistics on the cultural enrichment of schools in Austria.
Vienna is the most fully enriched location, and seems to be in roughly the same situation as Oslo. Many thanks to Hermes for the translation from attheheels.com The latest US cruise missile attack on the Syrian airbase is an extremely important event in so many ways that it is important to examine it in some detail.
Event. Date. Global Population Statistics. The Spanish “Reconquest” of the Iberian peninsula ends in January with the conquest of Granada, the last city held by the Moors.