Potential benefits[ edit ] The service sector is probably the most liberalized of the sectors.
See Article History Government economic policy, measures by which a government attempts to influence the economy. The national budget generally reflects the economic policy of a government, and it is partly through the budget that the government exercises its three principal methods of establishing control: Over time, there have been considerable changes in emphasis on these different economic functions of the budget.
In the 19th century, government finance was primarily concerned with the allocative function. The job of government was to raise revenue as cheaply and efficiently as possible to perform the limited tasks that it could do better than the private sector.
As the 20th century began, the distribution function acquired increased significance. Social welfare benefits became important, and many countries introduced graduated tax Government expenditure and economic development. Once more, allocative issues came to the fore, and stabilization and distribution became less significant in government finance.
The allocative function The allocative function in budgeting determines on what government revenue will be spent.
Because a high proportion of national income is now devoted to public expenditure, allocation decisions become more significant in political and economic terms. At all times and in all countries the calls for expenditure on specific services or activities, or for more generous transfer payments, will always exceed the amount that can reasonably be raised in taxation or by borrowing.
The debate about how these scarce resources should be allocated has continued for hundreds of years, Government expenditure and economic development, although numerous methods of deciding on priorities have emerged, it has never been satisfactorily resolved.
In practice, most democracies contain a number of different factions that disagree on the proper allocation of resources and indeed the proper level of public sector involvement in the economy; the frequent change of national governments is related to the constant search for the right answers.
Public goods Economists have sought to provide objective criteria for public expenditures through the so-called theory of public goods. It is generally recognized that some goods needed by the public cannot be provided through the private market.
Lighthouses are a classic example. The costs of a lighthouse are such that no one shipowner will want to finance it; on the other hand, if a lighthouse is provided for one shipowner, it can be made available to all for no additional cost. Indeed it must be available to all, since there is no practical means of excluding ships from using the facility provided by the lighthouse, even if their owners have refused to pay for it.
The only practical method of providing such services is by collective action. If goods are to be provided in this way, rather than through the private market, it is immediately necessary to confront the twin problems of deciding how much to provide and who should pay for that provision.
|Who is likely to be affected||Social Program Effectiveness and Employment: Cost-Effectiveness and International Tourism Development.|
Even if all individuals wanted the service equally—as, perhaps, with lighthouses—their views on the extent of the service would be influenced by the allocation of the costs. Where different households may have different preferences and some may not want the service at all—as, for example, with defense by nuclear weapons—these difficulties are compounded.
Economists have tried to devise abstract voting schemes that would reconcile these difficulties, but these appear to have little practical application. Moreover, others would challenge this whole approach to the problem. It would be absurd to say that the consumer has a taste for national defense and that it is the job of the government to satisfy it.
The task of national leaders is to evolve a defense policy and persuade the public to accept it. Similarly, conservationists must attempt to awaken the public to the importance of parks and wildlife.
In the context of public policy, the efficient allocation of resources consists not merely of distributing funds in the pursuit of given objectives but also involves determining the objectives themselves. Genuine public goods pose severe problems for the national budget; it is very difficult to decide how far particular goods—the arts, national parks, even defense—should be supplied, and therefore no formal procedure of determination is likely to evolve.
What should be given to each will continue to be the subject of intense political debate, with allocation changing as the government changes.
Merit goods The concept of merit goods assists governments in deciding which public or other goods should be supplied. Merit goods are commodities that the public sector provides free or cheaply because the government wishes to encourage their consumption. Goods such as subsidized housing or social services, which predominantly help the poor, or health care services, which help the poor and elderly, are generally regarded as having considerable merit and therefore have a strong claim on government resources.
Other examples include the provision of retraining schemes or urban regeneration programs. Cost-benefit analysis Once decisions have been made on how the limited national budget should be divided between different groups of activities, or even before this, public authorities need to decide which specific projects should be undertaken.
One method that has been used is cost-benefit analysis. This attempts to do for government programs what the forces of the marketplace do for business programs: If the ratio of benefits to costs is considered satisfactory, the project should be undertaken.
Or, if funds are limited, public investment projects may be assigned priorities according to their cost-benefit ratios. One difficulty with cost-benefit analysis is that every government agency has an incentive to estimate favourable ratios for its own projects.Public Spending and Economic Growth: Empirical Investigation of Sub-Saharan Africa 63 though is an investigation of the effects of government spending and foreign official.
economic growth. Their results reveal that government total capital expenditure, total recurrent expenditure and Education have negative effect on economic growth. CHAPTER 5 Government Expenditure by Economic and Functional Categories WEhave now established that the secular growth in British government expenditures relative to GNP, and the pattern of displacement in that.
Government expenditure positively affect economic growth for underdeveloped country Nigeria by using the Johansen co-integration and revealed that there is long run relationship between government. Economic growth and Government Expenditure: No doubt, the bulk of government revenues come from proceeds from government direct, investments in Nigeria, while printing of new money and taxes have remain an integral components of government revenues in.
EFFECT OF GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN EAST AFRICA: A DISAGGREGATED MODEL Naftaly Gisore 1, Symon Kiprop2, way or another, in the government’s development strategy documents of virtually all developing economies.
In this respect, economic .