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Early history of gases[ edit ] Blowing air at a spark The first gas from the natural environment used by humans was almost certainly air when it was discovered that blowing on or fanning a fire made it burn brighter.
Humans also used the warm gases from a fire to smoke foods and steam from boiling water to cook foods.
Bubbles of carbon dioxide form a froth on fermenting liquids such as beer Carbon dioxide has been known from ancient times as the byproduct of fermentationparticularly for beverageswhich was first documented dating from — B. Kipp's apparatus Acetylene flame carbide lamp The history of chemistry tells Industrial chemical process essay that a number of gases were identified and either discovered or first made in relatively pure form during the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries by notable chemists in their laboratories.
The Industrial chemical process essay of attributed discovery for various gases are carbon dioxide hydrogen  nitrogen nitrous oxide oxygen   ammonia chlorine methane hydrogen sulfide carbon monoxide hydrogen chloride acetylene helium   fluorine argon krypton, neon and xenon  and radon A notable example of a generator is Kipps apparatus which was invented in  and could be used to generate gases such as hydrogen, hydrogen sulfidechlorine, acetylene and carbon dioxide by simple gas evolution reactions.
Acetylene was manufactured commercially from and acetylene generators were used from about to produce gas for gas cooking and gas lightinghowever electricity took over as more practical for lighting and once LPG was produced commercially fromthe use of acetylene for cooking declined.
Notable developments in the industrial production of gases include the electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen in and oxygen fromthe Brin process for oxygen production which was invented in thethe chloralkali process to produce chlorine in and the Haber Process to produce ammonia in Carbon dioxide was first liquefied in The first Vapor-compression refrigeration cycle using ether was invented by Jacob Perkins in and a similar cycle using ammonia was invented in and another with sulfur dioxide in LPG was first made in A patent for LNG was filed in with the first commercial production in In refrigeration compression cycles were further developed to enable the liquefaction of air most notably by Carl von Linde  allowing larger quantities of oxygen production and in the discovery that large quantities of acetylene could be dissolved in acetone and rendered nonexplosive allowed the safe bottling of acetylene.
As production processes for other gases were developed many more gases came to be sold in cylinders without the need for a gas generator. Gas production technology[ edit ] Distillation column in a cryogenic air separation plant Air separation plants refine air in a separation process and so allow the bulk production of nitrogen and argon in addition to oxygen - these three are often also produced as cryogenic liquid.
To achieve the required low distillation temperatures, an Air Separation Unit ASU uses a refrigeration cycle that operates by means of the Joule—Thomson effect.
In addition to the main air gases, air separation is also the only practical source for production of the rare noble gases neonkrypton and xenon. Cryogenic technologies also allow the liquefaction of natural gashydrogen and helium. In natural-gas processingcryogenic technologies are used to remove nitrogen from natural gas in a Nitrogen Rejection Unit ; a process that can also be used to produce helium from natural gas - if the natural gas fields contain sufficient helium to make this economic.
The larger industrial gas companies have often invested in extensive patent libraries in all fields of their business, but particularly in cryogenics.
Gasification The other principal production technology in the industry is Reforming.
Steam reforming is a chemical process used to convert natural gas and steam into a syngas containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide with carbon dioxide as a byproduct.
Partial oxidation and autothermal reforming are similar processes but these also require oxygen from an ASU. Synthesis gas is often a precursor to the chemical synthesis of ammonia or methanol.
The carbon dioxide produced is an acid gas and is most commonly removed by amine treating. This separated carbon dioxide can potentially be sequestrated to a carbon capture reservoir or used for Enhanced oil recovery.
Air Separation and hydrogen reforming technologies are the cornerstone of the industrial gases industry and also form part of the technologies required for many fuel gasification including IGCCcogeneration and Fischer-Tropsch gas to liquids schemes.
Hydrogen has many production methods and is touted as a carbon neutral alternative fuel to hydrocarbons, whilst liquid hydrogen is used by NASA in the Space Shuttle as a rocket fuel ; see hydrogen economy for more information on hydrogens uses.The chemical industry is more diverse than virtually any other industry in the United States.
Harnessing basic ingredients, the industry 1 produces a plethora of products not usually seen or used by consumers but that are essential components of, or are required to manufacture, practically every consumer and industrial product. Many chemical industry products are intermediates, and chemical company .
Industrial Pollution: Types, Effects and Control of Industrial Pollution! The nature of the industrial waste depends upon the industrial process in which these originate and the raw materials the use. Broadly the industrial wastes may be divided into two groups: (a) Process waste;.
Industrial Chemical Processes Essay Tan Hung Kai Grade 11 In our present world, there are thousands of chemical processes that are being used to produce products that benefits our daily lives.
Industrial Chemical processes are used for “transforming raw materials into . 3. Chemical Hazards: The usage of chemicals with the resultant hazardous gases, vapours and fumes is one of the most dangerous industries.
The effects of noxious gases are: (a) Simple asphyxiants, e.g., nitrogen gas, methane gas, carbon dioxide. (b) Chemical osphysciants, e.g., carbon monoxide, hydrogen-sulphide, hydro-cyanic acid.
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The Performance In Any Chemical Process Biology Essay. Sodium hydrated oxide was reacted with ethyl ethanoate in a uninterrupted moved reaction - The Performance In Any Chemical Process Biology Essay introduction. The two reactants were introduced in the commixture vass.