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Abstract El Salvador is a country with a nameless women struggle for reaching legitimate women rights and participation. In addition, this paper proposes a categorization of three periods.
The first one is a large phase from to which represent the foundation of the women social movement. The second period is positioned during the armed conflict among the military force and Salvadorian guerrilla from to in which the women social movement loses strength.
As a result, strategies and goals from the rising women generation change toward a new perspective of feminist movement.
Background El Salvador is a country with a no recognize women's struggle during the eighteen and nineteen century.
History do not identified emancipator women actions during this period in which national politics were determinate by the military force, religion, and patriarchal though.
Therefore, there is not enough collected information and academic research about it. In the twenty century emerged the first recognized Investigacion de mercados essay and collective actions lead by Salvadorian women that had the goal of legitimate their rights and participation.
There were some strikes and protest taken place in the first half of twenty century such as The protest occurred in leaded by women sellers of San Salvador markets mercadosThe pacific protest of six thousand women dress up with black color in which was strongly suppressed on San Salvador streets and ended up in a slaughter Herrera, Morena The firsts recognized women organizations in El Salvador are "Asociacion de Mujeres Democratas" Democrats Women Association created in and became visible untiland "La Liga de Mujeres" The Women's League founded inboth demanded the right of women to become in citizens and get the right to vote.
However, it was until that this law was endorsed and started to run. Investigacion de mercados essay Europe and The United State have their own women liberation history which recognize three stages identified as three waves of feminism.
However, El Salvador has its own chronological rhythm and traits in the women and feminist movement. Tilly argues that "social movements combine sustained, organized public effort making collective claims on target audiences, employment of combinations from among the following forms of political action: At the beginning of the twenty century women actions for accomplish political rights in El Salvador did not present those characteristics.
For example instead of collective actions they developed individual procedures with no collective claims. She required registration as a citizen at The San Salvador Major in order to get the right to vote. However, her nomination was pursue with the argument that "citizen" was a statement referred to men, consequently women had no the right to be recognized as a citizens.
This action and some other implemented at the first half of twenty century represent individual efforts which had not the support of a collective group. Therefore, it is not possible recognized a women social movement in this period but its foundation.
During the first half of twenty century Salvadorian women organizations did not implemented forms of political contention such as coups, electoral campaigns, strikes, revolutions, and interest-group politics, that according to Tilly are elements that a social movement share Tilly, C: Whether there was not a unified collective group with combined claims, and practice of political contention's forms the Salvadorian women movement was not shaped in this period.
Chronological proposal Based in the assumption of time plurality of Zemelman and taking the armed conflict in the 80's as the central social fact in the second half of the twenty century, this paper present a historical time treatment based in three historical periods of the Salvadorian women's movement.
Before, during, and after the armed conflict in El Salvador. Large period Before the Armed Conflict The first period recognize the rising of some important documented women organizations along the second half of the twenty century, while El Salvador lived a repressive military government.
Paul Almeida states that El Salvador lived since until the longest enduring military government in the Americas. However, in this period of repressive government Salvadorian women movement consolidated their participation in the Salvadorian society.
Although military governments produce authoritarian and repressive politics that restrict the potential of social movement, but also create a favorable conditions for founding secondary associations such as unions, cooperatives, nongovernment organizations Almeida Paul, Some conditions of the Almeida Theory are reflected from to during a repressive military government which allow the conformation of secondary associations such as the Salvadorian Women Fellowship Fraternidad de Mujeres Salvadorenas founded in which was the first women organization linked with communist ideology because their founders were influenced by the Salvadorian Communist Party; Commite de Mujeres de la Union Union Women's Committee ; Comite Provisional de Mujeres Provisional Women's Committee ; and Associacion de Mujeres Progresistas Progressive Women's Association Moreover, the participation of women professors at the 70's on the strikes of ANDES 21 de Junio in which emerged the figure of the guerrilla leader Melida Anaya Montes.
These organizations adapt some traits of social movement like special purpose associations and coalitions, public meetings, petition drives, statements in public media, and participants' concerted public representations.
The goal of the women social movement in this period was focus in women's politics rights. In a interview Berta Deras founder of the Fraternidad de Mujeres Salvadorenas Salvadoran Women Fellowship she claim "we participated in elections, we went out to put up posters, our work was politic as well, and while there was no election time we also were participating.
Therefore, in this decade we can distinguish how the women movement settle in political and social actions become to a social movement. The process of the women social movement had have a crack during the 70's due to the effervescence struggle against the military government.
Along this decade disappeared many women organizations such as Salvadorian Women Fraternity. During the armed conflict The second period laying in an armed conflict from to Through those years the military forced battled against the guerrilla, leaving as a result around seventy thousands deaths.
Thirty percent of the guerrillas fighters were women Navas, FMLN snipers were often women, and many urban commandoes were led by women, who were less likely to arouse suspicion and were more easily disguised than men were. Kampwirth Karen, Women participation in the conflict armed made stronger the guerrilla.
As long as the armed conflict increased, the strength of the women movement decreased due to the social movement had focused in the armed conflict, and the political repression's environment that restricted the possibility of organizations of women.Mexican Industry at a Crossroads: Some Policy Considerations.
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