There is a cyclical relationship between stigma and HIV; people who experience stigma and discrimination are marginalised and made more vulnerable to HIV, while those living with HIV are more vulnerable to experiencing stigma and discrimination. Roughly one in eight people living with HIV is being denied health services because of stigma and discrimination. Adopting a human rights approach to HIV and AIDS is in the best interests of public health and is key to eradicating stigma and discrimination.
Posted on December 3, by Scott Alexander I. Ezra Klein uses my analysis of race and justice as a starting point to offer a thoughtful and intelligent discussion of what exactly it means to control for something in a study.
If blacks on average have lower incomes, then in the real world blacks might still be arrested much more. The solution is terminological rigor, which I foolishly forgot to have. Klein wants to know whether there is any factor at all that causes disproportionate impact of the criminal justice system on any race.
By this definition, my conclusions are only a tiny part of the picture, although at the end I recommend the book Malign Neglect which provides much of the rest.
What I think we do disagree about is the terminology.
Consider a town with black people and white people. We can do the calculations and determine that the black arrest rate will be 8.
The people in the town can do the calculations as well. They correctly observe that in their town, everyone commits crimes at the same rate, so there must be some bias in their system.
The problem is, upon learning that your criminal justice system is racist, what solutions come to mind? The ones I think of include things like increasing the diversity of the officer pool, sending police to diversity training, ferreting out racist attitudes and comments among members of the force, urging officers to consume media that is more positive towards black people, et cetera.
But all of these are unrelated to the problem and will accomplish nothing. We specified the decision algorithm these officers use, and we know it has nothing to do with race and everything to do with class.
Note that this is true even if the poverty is caused by racism. Suppose the town college unfairly admits whites and turns down blacks, which is why the white people in this town are so much richer.
But if the natural reaction to hearing the phrase is to solve the problem by attaching hundreds of helium balloons to black people, then say something less misleading. Klein goes on to say: As my colleague Matt Yglesias wrote, the commonly cited statistic that American women suffer from a 23 percent wage gap through which they make just 77 cents for every dollar a man earns is much too simplistic.
On the other hand, the frequently heard conservative counterargument that we should subject this raw wage gap to a massive list of statistical controls until it nearly vanishes is an enormous oversimplification in the opposite direction. After all, for many purposes gender is itself a standard demographic control to add to studies — and when you control for gender the wage gap disappears entirely!
Take hours worked, which is a standard control in some of the more sophisticated wage gap studies. Women tend to work fewer hours than men. If you control for hours worked, then some of the gender wage gap vanishes. Women work shorter hours because as a society we hold women to a higher standard of housekeeping, and because they tend to be assigned the bulk of childcare responsibilities.Strategies to address discrimination and build a more inclusive country with tolerance and respect for all Australians.
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The Case for Reparations. Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. What is the World AIDS Day Theme?
Every year, World AIDS Day focuses on a single theme. This year, the theme for the World AIDS Day observance is "Know your status", promoting self-testing, community-based testing and multidisease testing which are all helping people to know their HIV status -- without the stigma that still deters people from taking an HIV test.