What is alcoholism, or alcohol use disorder? Alcoholism has been known by a variety of terms, including alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. It occurs when you drink so much that your body eventually becomes dependent on or addicted to alcohol. When this happens, alcohol becomes the most important thing in your life.
More What is alcohol? The term "alcohol" has been synonymous with "spirituous" liquids for the past years. The history of alcohol consumption, along with codes limiting its consumption go back to B. There are four types of alcohol: The other three types, methyl, propyl and butyl alcohol, if consumed can result in blindness and death, even in relatively small doses.
Alcohol, or ethanol, is the intoxicating agent found in beer, wine and liquor. Alcohol is produced by fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. Other plants, such as the cactus or sugar cane may be used in liquor production. Fourteen grams or about 0. Examples of this amount may include one twelve ounce beer 5 percent alcoholeight to nine ounces of malt liquor 7 percent alcohol5 ounces of wine 12 percent alcohol or 1.
All states now prohibit the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 years since It is illegal to sell or buy alcohol for anyone under the age of According to The Office of the Surgeon General, alcohol is used by more young people in the United States than tobacco or illicit drugs, resulting in a serious public health concern.
The absorption of alcohol ethanol is decreased by food, especially fatty food. Absorption occurs primarily from the intestine.
Alcohol distributes into body water. Blood-alcohol concentration BAC is dependent upon weight and body fat, amount and time frame of alcohol consumption, and food effects.
Drinking alcohol over shorter time periods or in larger quantities and on an empty stomach will lead to a higher BAC. In all 50 U. Regulations are more strict in many states for drivers less than 21 years of age. Alcohol is metabolized primarily 90 percent in the liver.
Acetaldehyde is further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase to acetic acid, and eventually to carbon dioxide and water.
Alcohol excretion by the lungs constitutes the basis for the Breathalyzer test given by law enforcement who may suspect drinking and driving. Alcohol elevates the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA gamma amino butyric acid and reduces nerves signals along that neuronal pathway. Because of this action, alcohol is known as a central nervous system CNS depressant, and lowers both cognitive and physical capacities.
Combination with other CNS depressants, such as opiatesbarbituratesor benzodiazepines can have additive and dangerous effects. Health Hazards Due to Alcohol Abuse Long-term alcohol misuse is associated with liver and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and nervous system damage as well as psychiatric problems such as depression, anxiety, and antisocial personality disorder.Get answers: what are the signs of an alcoholic personality, is alcoholism hereditary, why do people become addicted, problem drinking vs use disorder, and much more.
Alcoholism Causes and Risk Factors. Alcoholism is a very complex disease, and every case is different. There are dozens of risk factors and causes, any of which can impact a specific individual.
Alcoholism: Developing Drugs for Treatment 2 Trials intended to show direct effects on physical or psychosocial consequences of arise during the development of drugs to treat alcoholism.
In any of the traditional stage models of alcoholism, the signs of physical dependence are considered to be crucial in the development of the disorder; however, many individuals with severe alcohol use disorders may not develop significant physical dependence on the .
Alcohol problems vary from mild to life-threatening and affect the individual, the person's family, and society in numerous adverse ways. Get the facts on alcoholism symptoms, signs, and treatment.
Most medications in use or in development for alcoholism treatment act on these neurotransmitter systems (see figure) and, in many instances, are focused on normalizing the alcohol-specific neuroadaptations or blocking alcohol-specific reinforcement.