Employee engagement is probably one of the most critical yet elusive factors in the workplace. People go from totally pumped and engaged to seriously deflated and disengaged because of a breach of the psychological contract. This contract obviously evolves, both ways, as expectations develop and as we start melding into the culture.
History[ edit ] The psychological contract came to be identified in by Argyris. However, only within the last ten to fifteen years has it become more popular and more research been done on the subject. The early works of Frederick Winslow Taylor focused on how to enhance worker efficiency.
Building upon this, Douglas McGregor developed Theory X and Theory Y to define two contrasting types of management styles that were each effective in attaining a certain goal. These differing management types hold different psychological contracts between employer and employee, as described in more detail under "formation of the psychological contract.
Rousseau and later went more in-depth on the details and perspectives of the psychological contract. Robinson indicated employees commonly reported a breach of the psychological contract within several years of beginning their position, and that the effects of contract breach negatively effected employee productivity and retention.
Violation of the psychological contract is likely to produce burnout because it erodes the notion of reciprocitywhich is crucial in maintaining well-being. According to the outline of phases of psychological contract formation, the contracting process begins before the employment itself, and develops throughout the course of employment.
As the employment relationship grows the psychological contract also grows and is reinforced over time. These are relational psychological contracts and transactional psychological contracts. These are more common in organizations with authoritative management styles and hierarchal control.
These psychological contracts tend to be longer term in nature. It also depends on the type of profession and differs widely based on stage in career; for example, between graduates and managers.
Pre-employment- The initial expectations of the employee form through professional norms and societal beliefs that may be influenced by information gathered about the organization and how certain occupations are portrayed by the media.
Recruitment- The first instance of two-way communication involving promise exchanges between employer and prospective employee during the recruiting process.
Early socialization- Promise exchanges continue with both parties actively continuing their search for information about one another through multiple sources. Later experiences- The promise exchange and search for information processes slow down as the employee is no longer considered new.
There may be changes to the psychological contract introduced at this stage. Evaluation- The existing psychological contract is evaluated and possibly revised and it is determined whether revision is needed.
Incentives and costs of change impact revision. How employers, supervisors and managers behave on a day-to-day basis is not determined by the legal contract. Employees slowly negotiate what they must do to satisfy their side of the bargain, and what they can expect in return.
This negotiation is sometimes explicit, e.
Hence, the psychological contract determines what the parties will, or will not do and how it will be done. When the parties' expectations match each other, performance is likely to be good and satisfaction levels will be high. So long as the values and loyalty persist, trust and commitment will be maintained.
The map followed by the parties is the development of an individualized career path that makes only reasonable demands on the employee, with adequate support from managers and co-workers, for a level of remuneration that is demonstrably fair for a person of that age, educational background, and experience.
Motivation and commitment will be enhanced if transfers and promotions follow the agreed path in a timely fashion.
The psychological contract changes over time. Since an employee's level of work changes as they advance in their career, the psychological contract that was established when they first began their career changes, too.
As an employee is promoted throughout their career they expect more from their psychological contract because they are putting more of themselves into their work. Each stage of a career creates another editing process to the contract.Psychological Egoism.
Psychological egoism is the thesis that we are always deep down motivated by what we perceive to be in our own self-interest.
Psychological altruism, on the other hand, is the view that sometimes we can have ultimately altruistic motives.
Suppose, for example, that Pam saves Jim from a burning office building. . Undue Influence In Contract And Probate Law: Cultic Studies Journal Abstract.
Definition of psychological contract: The unwritten understandings and informal obligations between an employer and its employees regarding their mutual expectations . Family Center By The Falls - A Collaborative Team Offering Behavioral Health Services For Children And Adolescents Helping Kids And Fam.
A psychological contract is a person’s belief about the mutual obligations that exist between an employer and an employee—some stated and tangible (like you give me pay and benefits and I’ll give you work output, time and hours) and some unstated and intangible (like you will provide me.
International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences May , Vol. 3, No. 5 ISSN: